According to the present state of research, copper mining, processing and casting started at the turn of the 6th to the 5th millennium BCE . The Balkan peninsula (Fig 1) played an important role at that time, but archaeological finds from the Levant (Tel Tsaf)  and the Iranian plateau (Tal-e Eblis)  also provide evidence for a comparable early metallurgy. The significant amount of metal objects and the meticulous studies conducted in Europe suggest the origin of metallurgy to have been located in the Balkans . In fact, it is impossible to identify one sole region as the origin of copper casting; instead, the rapid dissemination of metallurgical knowledge seems to be one of the characteristic properties of early metallurgy . The reasons for this are manifold; one factor could, for instance, have been the ongoing search for new raw material sources. The oft-mentioned special status of the metallurgist might also have played a further role and, finally, the far-reaching transfer of metallurgical knowledge was the condition and the reason for the preservation and development of this knowledge. As early as the 5th millennium BCE, metallurgical activities can be attested in the Alps  and on the Iberian Peninsula .
Traces of copper and gold metallurgy are absent in Pietrele, the objects having likely been brought from elsewhere. Four different mines have been identified as the origin of the copper items in Pietrele . Mining activities could be identified already in 1970, when Evgeny Cernych started his investigations in Ai Bunar, Bulgaria . Whereas other mines have been identified in the meantime, relics of copper casting are still lacking across the entire Balkan Peninsula. Hence, the casting method of the heavy metal axes is still a point of discussion.
An émigré (Muhajir) from India who migrated to Pakistan in 1952, Khan was educated in the metallurgical engineering departments of Western European technical universities where he pioneered studies in phase transitions of metallic alloys, uranium metallurgy, and isotope separation based on gas centrifuges. After learning of India's \"Smiling Buddha\" nuclear test in 1974, Khan joined his nation's clandestine efforts to develop atomic weapons when he founded the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976 and was both its chief scientist and director for many years.
From 1956 to 1959, Khan was employed by the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (city government) as an Inspector of weights and measures, and applied for a scholarship that allowed him to study in West Germany. In 1961, Khan departed for West Germany to study material science at the Technical University in West Berlin, where he academically excelled in courses in metallurgy, but left West Berlin when he switched to the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands in 1965. 59ce067264