Structural engineering is among the oldest types of engineering, dating back to the first instance of tree branches being lashed together with vines to make a shelter. Throughout recorded history, people have been designing and building increasingly larger and more sophisticated structures, from primitive huts to the International Space Station.
The names of the earliest practitioners of structural engineering are lost to antiquity. We will never know who designed the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Parthenon or the aqueducts of the Roman Empire. Some of the latter-day practitioners in this field are known, although often not as well as the structures they designed. Prominent structural engineers include Gustave Eiffel (Eiffel Tower, Statue of Liberty) and Eero Saarinen (Gateway Arch). However, most designs for famous modern structures such as the Large Hadron Collider and the James Webb Space Telescope are attributed to companies and government organizations.
An arch-type steel roof of the velodrome with the maximum span, height, and length equal to 109.50, 23.07, and 126.00 m respectively, is considered as the object of the current investigation. Steel is considered as a structural material based on the existing experience of implementing similar structures . The choice of the preferable structural solution and behaviour analysis of load-carrying members of the long-span arch-type steel roof of the velodrome is considered as the aim of the current study. The distribution of internal forces and stresses in the main load-carrying structural members such as displacements under the impact of design loads must be investigated in the course of the current study.
The structure was analysed at the static action of permanent, snow, and wind loads . Snow and wind loads were determined for the city of Riga. Two variants of the snow load action were considered: undrifted and drifted ones. The design value of the surface snow load was determined by equation 1 :
The structural solution for the arch-type steel roof of the velodrome was chosen. The trihedral lattice steel arch with a triangular web and the maximum span equal to 109.5 m is considered as the main load-carrying structure of the steel roof of the velodrome and as the most appropriate for the purposes of this building. The distribution of internal forces and stresses in the trihedral lattice steel arch with a triangular web such as displacements under the impact of the design loads were investigated for the fixed, double-hinged, and three-hinged static schemes. It was stated that the preferable structural scheme is the fixed arch.
4.Barabash M., Laznjuk M., Martinova M., Presnjakov N. Sovremennie tehnologii rascheta i proektirovanija metallicheskih i derevjannih konstrukcij [Modern calculation and design techniques of steel and timber structures]. Moscow: Publisher of Association of building universities, 2008. 328 p. (rus) 1e1e36bf2d